high altitude pulmonary edema treatment

High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) Aside from medical conditions, hikers and mountain climbers are at risk for pulmonary edema that’s caused by rapid altitude ascent, generally above 8,000 feet. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Ann Intern Med. 2010 May-Jun. 2019 Apr 23;4(4):CD013315. High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening noncardiogenic form of pulmonary edema (PE) that afflicts susceptible persons after rapid ascent to high altitude above 2500 m. Its pathogenesis is related to increased sympathetic tone, exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, uneven hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with overperfusion of some regions of the pulmonary … [4], The treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) includes rest, administration of oxygen (first line), and descent to a lower altitude (first line if oxygen is unavailable). However, cases have also been reported between 1,500–2,500 metres or 4,900–8,200 feet in more vulnerable subjects. encoded search term (High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE)) and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Imaging, Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Fast Five Quiz: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Symptoms and Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) FAQ, Perioperative Morbidity and Mortality of Patients With COVID-19 Who Undergo Urgent and Emergent Surgical Procedures, Lower-PEEP Strategy Promising in Critically Ill Patients Without Respiratory Distress, Prognostic Factors for 30-Day Mortality in Critically Ill Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019, Pulse Oximeters Miss Low Oxygen Levels Nearly Three Times More Often in Blacks Than Whites, Score Predicts Risk for Ventilation in COVID-19 Patients, Intake of Vitamins A, E and D Tied to Respiratory Health, Stop Prescribing Nocturnal Oxygen to Patients With COPD, Asthma Clinical Practice Guidelines (JSA, 2020), Oxygen Use More Than Expected During Aero-Medevac of COVID Patients. Sildenafil is used as a preventive treatment for altitude-induced pulmonary edema and pulmonary hypertension, [22] [23] the mechanism of action is via phosphodiesterase inhibition which raises cGMP, resulting in pulmonary arterial vasodilation and inhibition of smooth muscle cell … [Medline]. Chest. High Alt Med Biol. Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in hypoxia-related genes and susceptibility to acute high-altitude pulmonary edema. 100(3):972-80. Fischer R, Lang SM, Bergner A, Huber RM. Both tadalafil and dexamethasone may reduce the incidence of high-altitude pulmonary edema: a randomized trial. Oelz O, Maggiorini M, Ritter M, et al. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 13. Patients should be closely observed for rebound symptoms after hyperbaric treatments. [Medline]. Lancet 1998; 352:325. Info on the very dangerous form of mountain sickness - high-altitude pulmonary edema. HAPE may lead to shortness of breath, coughing, rapid heartbeat, and decreased oxygen levels as a result of pressure from constricted pulmonary capillaries. Wilderness Environ Med. Wilderness Environ Med. Laurie A Ward, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Nephrology, International Society of Nephrology, National Kidney FoundationDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2021. ch 38. [28], Because acetazolamide hastens acclimatization, it should be effective at preventing all forms of acute altitude illness. Altitude-related illnesses range from acute mountain sickness, which is common and usually mild, to life-threatening high-altitude pulmonary edema and high-altitude cerebral edema. Chapter 3: Environmental hazards & other noninfectious health risks. Wilkins MR, Ghofrani HA, Weissmann N, Aldashev A, Zhao L. Pathophysiology and treatment of high-altitude pulmonary vascular disease. 2007 Summer. Travel to high altitude thus laces individuals at risk for a variety of complications related to the low ambient oxygen conditions. This causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels to the lung tissues and eventually into the air sacs. Management of high altitude pulmonary edema in the Himalaya: a review of 56 cases presenting at Pheriche medical aid post (4240 m). High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in lowlanders who ascend rapidly to altitudes greater than 2500-3000 m. Early symptoms of HAPE include a nonproductive cough, dyspnoea on exertion and reduced exercise performance. OBSERVATIONS: There is no indication for HAPE prophylaxis in altitude naive children. Acute mountain sickness: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. Leshem E, Pandey P, Shlim DR, Hiramatsu K, Sidi Y, Schwartz E. Clinical features of patients with severe altitude illness in Nepal. Later, dyspnoea occurs at rest. In high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), it's theorized that vessels in the lungs constrict, causing increased pressure. Korzeniewski K, Nitsch-Osuch A, Guzek A, Juszczak D. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers. Pulmonary edema due to altitude sickness, or not getting enough oxygen in the air, will have symptoms … Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP Former Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Medical Director, Pulmonary Physiology Laboratory, Director of Research in Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital April 5, 2020; Accessed: April 6, 2020. High Alt Med Biol. J Travel Med. In normal lungs, air sacs (alveoli) take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE): HAPE is a condition that occurs in people whoexercise at altitudes above 8,000ft without having first acclimated to the high altitude. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013315. Furthermore, decreased fluid clearance from the alveoli may contribute to this noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. The most effective and reliable treatment ofestablished. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study in a military hospital. 2006 Oct 3. Clinical observations suggest acetazolamide may prevent reentry HAPE, a disorder seen in individuals who reside at high altitude, travel to lower elevation, and then develop HAPE upon rapid return to their homes. Despite prompt improvement during the first few hours of treatment … High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening noncardiogenic form of pulmonary edema (PE) that afflicts susceptible persons after rapid ascent to high altitude above 2500 m. Its pathogenesis is related to increased sympathetic tone, exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, uneven … The medications were administered during ascent and at a stay at 4559 m altitude. The treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) includes rest, administration of oxygen (first line), and descent to a lower altitude (first line if oxygen is unavailable). 2000 Mar 15. Treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema at 4240 m in Nepal. Courtesy of High Altitude Medicine & Biology (PMID: 27768392, online at https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/ham.2016.0008). Key words: high altitude, pulmonary edema, HAPE, AMS, mountain sickness, dexamethasone, corticosteroids Introduction Dexamethasone has been shown to be effective in the prevention [1-5] and treatment of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with mainly cerebral symptoms [4-7]. 2010 Jun;21(2):146-55. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2010.03.002. [Medline]. Search or Find all events +7 926 233 3300 (whatsapp) +44 793 7973396 (whatsapp) info@alexclimb.com. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in lowlanders who ascend rapidly to altitudes greater than 2500-3000 m. Early symptoms of HAPE include a nonproductive cough, dyspnoea on exertion and reduced exercise performance. 24 (1):32-6. This fluid collects in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe.In most cases, heart problems cause pulmonary edema. Courtesy of Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chest_XR_of_HAPE.png). Qazi Qaisar Afzal, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, Medical Society of the State of New YorkDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Advances in the prevention and treatment of high altitude illness. [Medline]. First described in the … [2, 3, 4, 7, 18]  If diagnosed early, recovery is rapid with a descent of only 500-1000 m. A portable hyperbaric chamber (see the following image) or supplemental oxygen administration immediately increases oxygen saturation and reduces pulmonary artery pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and symptoms. Swenson ER, Bärtsch P. High-altitude pulmonary edema. 2005 Nov 16. Susceptible individuals can prevent HAPE by slow ascent, average gain of altitude not exceeding 300 m/d above an altitude of 2500 m. If progressive high altitude acclimatization would not be possible, prophylaxis with nifedipine or tadalafil for long sojourns at high altitude or dexamethasone for a short stay of less then 5 days should be recommended. Fagenholz PJ, Gutman JA, Murray AF, Harris NS. The most important of these complications include the relatively benign acute mountain sickness (AMS) and the potentially life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment Andre Pennardt, MD, FACEP, FAWM Abstract High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a lethal, noncardiogenic form of pulmonary edema that afflicts susceptible individuals after rapid as-cent to high altitude above 2,500 m. Prevention of HAPE is achieved most effectively by gradual ascent allowing time for … This causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels into the lungs. Pulm Med. Author information: (1)Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. J Appl Physiol. The incidence increases with increasing altitude… Pulmonary embolism masquerading as HAPE. HAPE developed in 7 of 9 participants who received placebo and in 1 of the remaining 8 participants who received tadalafil, but it did not develop in any of the 10 participants who received dexamethasone (P = .007 for tadalafil vs placebo; P< .001 for dexamethasone vs placebo). High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) presents within 2 to 5 days after arrival at high altitude.1, 2, 3 It is rarely observed below altitudes of 2500 to 3000 m and after 1 week of acclimatization at a particular altitude. Freeman K, Shalit M, Stroh G. Use of the Gamow Bag by EMT-basic park rangers for treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema and high-altitude cerebral edema. [Full Text]. Information on altitude physiology, acclimatization, Acute Mountain Sickness, High Altitude Cerebral Edema, and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema, and High Altitude Cough. Managing high-altitude pulmonary edema with oxygen alone: results of a randomized controlled trial. Drugs are not as effective as descent from altitude and oxygen in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). 179 (2-3):294-9. Would you like email updates of new search results? The most severe form of altitude sickness, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), results when a buildup of fluid causes swelling of the brain. Acetazolamide and dexamethasone have been shown to be effective agents for prophylaxis against high-altitude illness. [Medline]. Info on the very dangerous form of mountain sickness - high-altitude pulmonary edema. Genet Mol Res. Luks AM, Swenson ER, Bartsch P. Acute high-altitude sickness. Eur J Med Res. Far from describing all the physiological and pathological responses of the organism, in this review, the authors expose the state of the art in the knowledge of the responsiveness of the pulmonary circle to the acute or chronic hypoxic condition, its possible progression to the pulmonary arterial hypertension, the latter being more appropriately named High-Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) is a fatal form of severe high-altitude illness. NLM A successful therapy of high-altitude pulmonary edema with a CPAP helmet on Lenin Peak. Mounier R, Amonchot A, Caillot N, et al. 1991 Oct 31. Individual susceptibility is the most important determinant for the occurrence of HAPE. 2015 Nov 3. Cureus. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. In: Weiss EA, Sward DG, eds. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. [29] and extensive clinical experience, the Wilderness Medical Society recommends nifedipine for HAPE prevention in high risk individuals. Wilderness Medical Society consensus guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness. [Full Text]. Oxygen, if available, should be provided. Courtesy of Extreme Physiology & Medicine (PMID: 24636661, online at https://extremephysiolmed.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/2046-7648-3-6). Microrna. Descend if the symptoms become worse while resting at the same altitude. [Full Text]. Deshwal R, Iqbal M, Basnet S. Nifedipine for the treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema. Maggiorini M, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Peth S, et al. Acetazolamide, which appears to hasten acclimatization, is considered the drug of choice because of a low incidence of significant adverse effects. Fagenholz PJ, Gutman JA, Murray AF, Noble VE, Thomas SH, Harris NS. [Medline]. [2], Based on a single randomized, placebo-controlled study Millet GP, Debevec T, Brocherie F, Burtscher M, Burtscher J. Physiol Rep. 2021 Jan;8(24):e14615. [Medline]. Medical students demonstrate the use of a portable hyperbaric chamber. 2011:190648. Prevention and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema by a calcium channel blocker. Standardization of methods for early diagnosis and on-site treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema. 2008 Winter;19(4):293-303. doi: 10.1580/07-WEME-REV-173.1. [Full Text]. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Children: A Single Referral Center Evaluation. As a group of physicians who have in some cases cared for patients with COVID-19 and in all … High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a non-cardiogenic edema which afflicts susceptible persons who ascend to altitudes above 2500 meters and remain there for 24 to 48 h or longer. Nifedipine for the Treatment of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Rajesh Deshwal, MD, FHM; Mohd Iqbal, MD; Sidhant Basnet, MBBS From the Department of Medicine, Military Hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim, India (Drs Deshwal, Iqbal, and Basnet). Zafren K. Gamow bag for high-altitude cerebral oedema. Mountain climbing school. High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening noncardiogenic form of pulmonary edema (PE) that develops in nonacclimatized persons after rapid ascent to altitudes above 2000 to 3000 m. HAPE is primarily a pulmonary disorder, whereas acute mountain sickness (AMS) and the much less frequent high-altitude cerebral edema, are neurologic disorders. Mir Omar Ali, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Society of Critical Care MedicineDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 2013 Mar. Altitude Sickness: Symptoms, Treatment & Medication, Prevention. 8th ed. Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care MedicineDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. vasodilator, has a longer history of clinical use. Gregory Tino, MD Director of Pulmonary Outpatient Practices, Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center and Hospital [Full Text]. This condition is life-threatening. Oxygen saturation was improved at discharge (84% ± 1.7%) compared with admission (59% ± 11%), as was the ultrasound comet-tail score (11 ± 4 at discharge vs 33 ± 8.6 at admission), a measure of pulmonary edema for which admission and discharge values were obtained in 7 patients. [Medline]. Live Blood Analysis. Causes of Pulmonary Edema Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema. Early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment are essential to maintain the safety of people who ascend to high altitude, such as construction workers and tourists. 12 Mar 2018 This article will review the prevention and treatment of high altitude …  |  Far from describing all the physiological and pathological responses of the organism, in this review, the authors expose the state of the art in the knowledge of the responsiveness of the pulmonary circle to the acute or chronic hypoxic condition, its possible progression to the pulmonary arterial hypertension, the latter being more appropriately named High-Altitude Pulmonary … [20, 21] Therefore, the Guidelines section also contains the following COVID-19-related guidance: For more COVID-19 information, please go to Medscape's Novel Coronavirus Resource Center, COVID-19 Clinical Guidelines, and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). 362571-overview [Medline]. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) Envenomation, such as with the venom of Atrax robustus; Signs and symptoms. Houston CS, Dickinson J. Cerebral form of high-altitude illness. J Am Coll Cardiol. [2, 3]  and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. … HAPE is a life-threatening condition that primarily begins to occur in altitudes above … Ann Intern Med. It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It has been shown to blunt hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but there are no data specifically supporting a role in HAPE prevention. [Medline]. High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). [Guideline] Sorbello M, El-Boghdadly K, Di Giacinto I, et al, for the Societa Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) Airway Research Group, The European Airway Management Society. Altitude Illness Clinical Guide For Physicians. [Full Text]. [2, 3] and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Dec. 17 (4):294-9. If you're climbing or traveling at high altitudes and have mild symptoms of HAPE, descend 1,000 to 3,000 feet (about 300 to 1,000 meters) as quickly as you can, within reason. 2011 Dec 15. 5:15126. Grunig E, Mereles D, Hildebrandt W, et al. Wilderness Environ Med. StatPearls [Internet]. High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Both tadalafil and dexamethasone may reduce the incidence of high-altitude pulmonary edema: a randomized trial. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. Guo L, Tan G, Liu P, et al. 2006 Oct 3. Prophylactic low-dose acetazolamide reduces the incidence and severity of acute mountain sickness. Whether dexamethasone is also beneficial in the prevention or treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema … Treatments for high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) also include: Immediately descending to a lower elevation. It commonly affects recreational hikers and skiers, but it can also be observed in well-conditioned athletes. See also the Guidelines section for treatment recommendations from the Wilderness Medical Society High Alt Med Biol. Here's the symptoms, causes, and six treatment methods of cerebral edema.  |  Courtesy of Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Portable_hyperbaric_chamber.jpg). [27] Dexamethasone prophylaxis may also reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in these adults. See also the Guidelines section for prevention guidance from the Wilderness Medical Society 2020 Mar 20;12(3):e7343. Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. Timely treatment for the condition can improve possible outcomes. Wilderness Medical Society clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2019 update. Initial chest x-ray showing pulmonary infiltrates in the right lung especially in the right mid and lower lung zones indicative of pulmonary edema. A type of altitude sickness affecting the lungs. 2006 Mar. N Engl J Med. High Alt Med Biol. 131(4):1013-8. van Patot MC, Leadbetter G 3rd, Keyes LE, Maakestad KM, Olson S, Hackett PH. A physiologic (simulated) descent of approximately 2000 m may be achieved in a few minutes. 8(2):139-46. [Medline]. 35(4):980-7. [Medline]. Wilderness Environ Med. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzAwNzE2LXRyZWF0bWVudA==. Introduction High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life- threatening, noncardiogenic form of pulmonary edema afflicting certain individuals after rapid ascent to high alti- tude above 2,500 m (approximately 8,200 ft). Individual susceptibility is the most important determinant for the occurrence of HAPE. [Full Text]. [4], Prophylaxis for high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is indicated for persons who have been identified (from past experience) as being susceptible to developing high-altitude illness or who must ascend rapidly to a high altitude. Nifedipine , a medication for high blood pressure, has been shown to be beneficial for high-altitude pulmonary edema. Wilderness Environ Med. Jensen JD, Vincent AL. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017 May. Additional symptoms are anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fatigue. The effects of a graded increase in chronic hypoxia exposure duration on healthy rats at high-altitude. She had continued ascending despite experiencing mild altitude symptoms at Namche (3440 m), with considerably worsened symptoms at Tengboche (3860 m). If evacuation to a lower altitude is unsafe or impossible (e.g., severe weather) and supplemental oxygen is unavailable, … eCollection 2019 Oct. Molano Franco D, Nieto Estrada VH, Gonzalez Garay AG, Martí-Carvajal AJ, Arevalo-Rodriguez I. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Effects of altitude and exercise on pulmonary capillary integrity: evidence for subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study showed that adults with previous HAPE who received prophylactic tadalafil (10 mg) or dexamethasone (8 mg) had significantly less HAPE compared with those who received placebo twice daily. Interventions for preventing high altitude illness: Part 3. [Guideline] Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, et al, for the Wilderness Medical Society. Nifedipine, by reducing pulmonary arterial pressure, may … [Medline]. Information on altitude physiology, acclimatization, Acute Mountain Sickness, High Altitude Cerebral Edema, and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema, and High Altitude Cough. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. [Medline]. April 6, 2020; Accessed: April 6, 2020. Available at https://www.fda.gov/media/136449/download. [Medline]. 2015 Apr. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema. Samia Qazi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal MedicineDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 145(7):497-506. 145(7):497-506. . [Medline]. The heart is composed of two upper (the right and left atria) and two lower chambers (the right … This should ease some of your symptoms.Your doctor will monitor your oxygen level closely. [Medline]. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors, patient profile, clinical features, and oral nifedipine as a treatment option for a series of 110 patients with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in a military hospital in India. The hallmark of HAPE is an excessively elevated pulmonary artery pressure (mean pressure 36-51 mm Hg), caused by an inhomogeneous hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which leads to an elevated pulmonary capillary pressure and protein content as well as red blood cell-rich edema fluid. Treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema at 4240 m in Nepal. Luks AM, McIntosh SE, Grissom CK, Auerbach PS, Rodway GW, Schoene RB, Zafren K, Hackett PH; Wilderness Medical Society. Patients are typically treated in 1-hour increments. Cardiovasc Res. for: Medscape. Worcester S. Is protocol-driven COVID-19 ventilation doing more harm than good?. With education and implementation of proper preventive techniques, such as a judicious rate of ascent above 10,000ft and nifedipine when indicated, HAPE can often be avoided. Jones BE, Stokes S, McKenzie S, Nilles E, Stoddard GJ. Cerebral edema, or brain swelling, is a potentially life-threatening condition. Lancet 1975; 2:758. Mounier R, Amonchot A, Caillot N, et al. Maggiorini M, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Peth S, et al. Finally, the use of an expiratory positive airway pressure mask improves oxygenation and may be useful as a temporizing measure. 10(11):469-74. It is a clinical diagnosis characterized by fatigue, dyspnea, and dry cough with exertion. USA.gov. Clin J Sport Med 2009; 19:72. Portable hyperbaric chambers (Gamow, CERTEC) are in wide use by trekkers. High altitude pulmonary edema is an easily treatable, though potentially fatal, syndrome of the acute mountain illnesses. Maggiorini M. Prevention and treatment of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Federation for Medical Research, American Thoracic SocietyDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 2007 Apr. [Guideline] Alhazzani W, Moller MH, Arabi YM, et al. 2019 Dec. 30 (4S):S3-S18. Scherrer U, Rexhaj E, Jayet PY, Allemann Y, Sartori C. New insights in the pathogenesis of high-altitude pulmonary edema. 52(6):500-6. Search. High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening disease of high altitude that often affects nonacclimatized apparently healthy individuals who rapidly ascend to high altitude.

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