corset history timeline

The first true corset was invented. By the 1830s, steel stays had begun to replace the classic whalebone. Linen twill weave fabric stiffened with baleen. Underwear or Outerwear? All rights reserved. A woman may have rejoiced in having the correct shape for fashion one moment, while her sister needed to strap herself into a corset to achieve the desired contours. Because you couldn’t really dance the black bottom or other cool, frenetic dances wearing a corset. They were worn for sports and cycling particularly. At this time, the bust lowered and corsets provided much less support for the breasts. A return to feminity, and Christian Dior’s New Look designs – full skirts, tiny waists, needed a waist nipping “waspie”. V&A Publishing. 1835 James married Sarah. Wondering what was the clothing style in the 80s? During this time high waists and long slim figures were popular again, a full bust was still popular, but the waist, stomach and hips had to be the measure in width. However, any benefits to the stomach were more than counterbalanced by injury caused to the back due to the unnatural posture that it forced upon its wearer. 1850… [citation needed] In the 1830s, the artificially inflated shoulders and skirts made the intervening waist look narrow, even with the corset laced only moderately. The corsets of today are lovely, alluring and very feminine. From 1908 to 1914, the fashionable narrow-hipped and narrow-skirted silhouette necessitated the lengthening of the corset at its lower edge. (1952, March 18). Spiral steel stays curved with the figure. At the same time, the term corset was first used for this garment in English. By 1800, the corset had become primarily a method of supporting the breasts, as the waist was raised to just under the bust line. Mary, Queen of Scots, for example, did not wear a corset. At the beginning of the century, the “S Bend” corset (so-called as the wearer’s body curved into an S) was introduced as an alternative to the hourglass – but in completely enveloping the hips and reaching right down to the groin at the front it was more uncomfortable than ever. [22] The Merry Widow differed from earlier corsets in that it separated the breasts, whereas corsets had held them together. A huge range of colors and styles including Corset Tops, Shapewear, Steampunk and Waist Training corsets. Dec. 30, 2020. Women's Workwear Fashion. Pulling it off: What looks good with high-waisted jeans? Some form of corset was still worn by most women of the time but these were often "short stays" (i.e. When the marriage was consummated, a groom had to slowly and carefully undo each lace to demonstrate self-control.[6][7]. In the eighteenth century, the corset imposed a more-or-less conical configuration to the upper torso. Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year [20] The corset, which had been made using steel stays since the 1860s, further declined in popularity as women took to brassieres and girdles which also used less steel in their construction. torrilynn on June 29, 2013: @Phyllis Doyle ive always been fascinated by corsets and the history behind them. The second corset is English, and was put on the effigy of Queen Elizabeth in 1602. The straight-front corset, also known as the swan-bill corset, the S-bend corset, or the health corset, was worn from circa 1900 to the early 1910s. The vogue for both burlesque and old-fashioned lingerie styles, popularized especially by companies such as Agent Provocateur, has brought back the Victorian style corset, more for fetish and evening wear than as serious undergarments. "Dangerous Liaisons: Fashion and Furniture in the 18th century," April 27, 2004–September 6, 2004 Its name is derived from the very rigid, straight busk inserted in the center front of the corset. By now the focus has dropped even lower, and fashionable women wore not so much a corset as a girdle. He began a tea, coffee and grocery warehouse and shop. Queen Alexandra herself was a good model for the Edwardian sloping bosom. The Ultimate vintage Mom Jeans to Turn Heads, Popular clothes worn in 80s fashion making a comeback today, Some amazing 80s womens clothes that are making a comeback today. Make a bonfire of the cruel steels that have lorded it over your thorax and abdomens for so many years and heave a sigh of relief, for your emancipation I assure you, from this moment has begun.[18]. 1960 – In the 60’s and 70’s you were really expected to go it alone, and create a slender appearance though diet and exercise. But the following run down focuses on women’s silhouettes. The Evolution of The Bra: A Timeline . Yes, the hated material of your school PE shirt was invented for use in corsets to let the skin breathe. The corset first became popular in sixteenth-century Europe, reaching the zenith of its popularity in the Victorian era. The over-100-year modern history of the bra is full of twists and turns. [9], During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries bodies, as corsets were known then, were typically worn as both underwear and outerwear. Edwardian Corsetry Fashion History By Pauline Weston Thomas for Fashion-Era.com Edwardian Corsetry Fashion History The Mature Edwardian Figure The Health Corset The S-Bend Corset Fashion to Tight Lace The Mono Bosom Effect The Corset after 1907 Veblen’s Corset Theories The 1911 Elastic Belt and Bust Bodice The Mature Edwardian Figure Fashions favoured the mature woman … These corsets were typically made out of layered fabric, stiffened with glue, and were tightly laced. The corset no longer ended at the hips, but flared out and ended several inches below the waist. The corset differed from the earlier stays in numerous ways. Supermodel 90s fashion trends still making waves even today! Women's Work Style. A new type of corset covered the thighs and changed the position of the hip, making the waist appear higher and wider. They were used to "beautify" women and also to ensure modesty. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Yale University Press. The earliest known representation of a possible corset appears on a Cretan figurine made circa 1600 BCE. Images on ancient pottery show both … Well-fitting eighteenth-century corsets were quite comfortable, did not restrict breathing, and allowed women to work, although they did restrict bending at the waist, forcing one to protect one's back by lifting with the legs.[12][13]. History of Corsetry. A quick scan of period dramas from this time will confirm the extremely high waist and youthful look of the time, meaning a mini corset, almost like a modern longline bra (appropriate since fashions concentrated on the bust more than anything) was all that was needed. The Fashion History Timeline is a project by FIT’s History of Art Department. Explore. As seen in various fashion advertisements of the era, the common corset cost one dollar ($1). The meaning of it as a "stiff supporting and constricting undergarment for the waist, worn chiefly by women to shape the figure," dates from 1795.[3][4]. However, it had changed its shape to the hourglass silhouette that is even now considered typical both for corsets and for Victorian fashion. Over the last 200 years or so, women’s corseted torsos have been squished, squashed, uplifted, padded and generally rarely left alone by their undergarments. Jan 29, 2018 - Image result for corset history timeline pictures. Women, as well as some men, have used it to change the appearance of their bodies. Design by WOOBRO, 80s one shoulder tops launch a comeback at major fashion outlets, So much coolness comes in a Levis blue denim 90s skirt. While a few surviving corsets exist that are structured with steel or iron, these are generally considered to have been either orthopedic or novelty constructions and were not worn as part of mainstream fashion. A few years later, the positions may well have been reversed. The straight-front corset was popularized by Inès Gaches-Sarraute [fr], a corsetiere with a degree in medicine. Audrey Withers, the editor of Vogue who kept it going through the war. Women’s Wear Daily, 84(54), 67. artificially inflated shoulders and skirts, "Bodies or Stays? ... No, nor do you save the whalebones, you will never need whalebones again. The corset looms large in special exhibitions at both the de Young and the Legion of Honor. Get 80s clothes for sale cheap in The UK And Never Have to Worry About Fits! In the 1990s, fetish fashion became popular, and corsets made something of a recovery, often worn as outer- rather than undergarments. During that time many styles of corsets were in use. You could get a little assistance from lycra and powermesh, though. Christian Bérard, the Multi-Talented Fashion Illustrator. When the waistline returned to its natural position during the 1830s, the corset reappeared and served the dual purpose of supporting the breasts and narrowing the waist. The obvious health risks, including damaged and rearranged internal organs, compromised fertility; weakness, and general depletion of health were also blamed on excessive corsetry. A pair of stays, c. 1780. These corsets had shoulder straps and ended in flaps at the waist. Here’s a look at how the bra (or brassiere) as we know it came to be. Undressed, a Brief History of Underwear. Jumps were made of silk, cotton, or linen and often embroidered. 50 years later, the line of the corset has dropped once more to an hourglass figure, flaring over the hips and covering the abdomen. The corset – a garment with a rigid bodice that incorporates boning and is laced together in order to shape the torso – has a controversial history. Steele, V. The Corset A Cultural History, 2001, Yale. The Cultural History of the Corset and Gendered Body in Social and Literary Landscapes Melis Mulazimoglu Erkal Ege University, Turkey Abstract This study centers on the significance, uses and changes of the corset in the Western culture and literature … Seventeenth-century Foundation Garments explained", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_corsets&oldid=1000944021, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 13:46. The corset continued to be long-waisted during the 1880s and was often of elegant materials such as silk, satin and brocade, and of a great variety of colors. During this period, corsets were usually worn with a farthingalethat held out the skirts in a stiff cone. Women since the 16th century have been trying to achieve a zero figure or ultra slim appearance through the use of a tightly-laced garment called Corset. Garsault, Diderot), you can find the term corset as referring to a lightly stiffened bodice with tie-on sleeves, whereas proper stays are called corps . The boning was concentrated across the tummy to create a young, flat silhouette, with smoothed bottom and thighs. Corsets 1800 – 1990s – Corset history timeline. The primary purpose of 18th-century stays was to raise and shape the breasts, tighten the midriff, support the back, improve posture to help a woman stand straight, with the shoulders down and back, and only slightly narrow the waist, creating a "V" shaped upper torso over which the outer garment would be worn; however, "jumps" of quilted linen were also worn instead of stays for informal situations. The term "corset” was in use in the late 14th century, from the French "corset" which meant "a kind of laced bodice." However, these garments were better known as girdle with the express purpose of reducing the hips in size. Women's Style. History of Corset and Corset Punishments The female gender has always been intriguing in terms of the bodily shape they have, be it a Pear shaped or an Hour-glass figure. 9. The earliest known image of a possible corset was made c. 1600 BC. In truth, images from pottery depict both men and wome… Women, as well as some men, have used it to change the appearance of their bodies. In French 18th century texts (e.g. The Timeline offers scholarly contributions to the public knowledge of the history of fashion and design. . This type of corset was popular until 1890: when machine-made corsets gained popularity. [2]:29, Even as it gained popularity, the corset was not worn by everyone. Of course if you didn’t happen to have full, pear-shaped breasts, corset manufacturers were there to help you, and you could get padding to put under clothing for the purpose, or even a corset that shaped you to this ideal. American women active in the anti-slavery and temperance movements, with experience in public speaking and political agitation, demanded sensible clothing that would not restrict their movement. The history of corsetry Corset timeline . 16th Century: The Rise of the Corset. Ehrman, E. (2015). Today I began by recording main events in lingerie through the years. Home Corset Timeline Costume Analysis Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. [10] Whalebone (baleen) was frequently used in bodies to maintain their stiff appearance. History of the Market Harborough Factory and the Symington’s Company 1827 William Symington left his family in Lanarkshire and moved to Market Harborough. Timelines France, 1800-1900 A.D. Related Objects. Courier Corporation, 2007. Deriving from the French word jupe, which in the eighteenth century referred to a short jacket, jumps were only partially boned and padded with cotton to provide support for the breasts while not being restrictive. [15] While support for fashionable dress contested that corsets maintained an upright, ‘good figure’, as a necessary physical structure for moral and well-ordered society, these dress reformists contested that women’s fashions were not only physically detrimental but “the results of male conspiracy to make women subservient by cultivating them in slave psychology.”[16][17] They believed a change in fashions could change the whole position of women, allowing for greater social mobility, independence from men and marriage, the ability to work for wages, as well as physical movement and comfort.[16]:391. [2]:29 The busk was often used for special occasions and events, and was sometimes presented to a woman by a suitor as a prize when he was interested in a female. [9] During the reign of Louis XV of France and again during the French Revolution, the corset went out of style, as the fashions were simpler. Therefore the emphasis of the stays was less on the smallness of the waist than on the contrast between the rigid flatness of the bodice front and the curving tops of the breasts peeking over the top of the corset. Despite these protests, little changed in restrictive fashion and undergarments by 1900. Aug 28, 2020 - Fashion history reveals the first recorded corset originated from Crete in Greece, worn by the Minoan people. Ehrman, E. (2015). Initially, the Merry Widow was a trademark of the famous Maidenform company, which designed it for Lana Turner's role in a 1952 movie of the same name. The corset was exaggeratedly curvaceous rather than funnel-shaped. Where can I buy original 80s clothing for men and women? Bents (reeds) were also common. It meant that although the lacing was still at the back, it fastened at the front, and you could put it on and pull the lacing tight yourself. The Fashion History Timeline is a project by FIT’s History of Art Department.The Timeline offers scholarly contributions to the public knowledge of the history of fashion and design. For several centuries, the corset has been an important article of clothing. The corsets turned the upper torso into a matching but inverte… By 2010, the corset had recovered a new popularity in fashion. The Corset and the Crinoline: An Illustrated History. While many corsets were still sewn by hand to the wearer's measurements, there was also a thriving market in cheaper mass-produced corsets. 17th Century. A busk, typically made of wood, horn, ivory, metal, or whalebone, was added to stiffen the front of the bodice. A separate, light bandeaux bra was worn on top. The Fashion Museum, Bath, England. by Lesley Scott. Essays Costume in The Metropolitan Museum of Art Nineteenth-Century Silhouette and Support. The true origin of the corset is unclear, but the corset has been an important article of clothing for centuries. For dress reformists of the late 1800s, corsets were a dangerous moral ‘evil’, promoting promiscuous views of female bodies and superficial dalliance into fashion whims. The girdle was more concerned with reducing the hips rather than the waist. Corsets in the 17th century were mostly made from linen and bones, with reeds, bents or whalebones. ... Timeline of Art History. Historic Research, Timeline & Corset History. By April 2017, corsets were receiving large numbers of reviews on Amazon, one UK garment attracting more than a thousand reviews. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. A similar garment in the USA received over two thousand reviews. I then created a timeline of lingerie adverts that show the progrestion of lingerie. The waspie was more like a very tight belt than anything, only about 10cm deep and using new materials such as plastic boning and nylon elastic fabric. The underbust corset was cut under the bosom for easy movements, although still waist cinching. At a time where a prominent bust was desired, corsets helped to accentuate the bust and put more emphasis on the décolletage. Stays, c. 1780. Underwear at the V and A Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear, Try some 80s fashion trends that never went out of style, Womens 1970s vintage tops in hippie fashion, Poldark Style-part 4 Demelza and Elizabeth, 20s – 30s Burlesque – Through a period of great change, Burlesque History – 1850s – 2010s, Costumes, people & places, Vintage Blog – Fashion design to Subculture styles, burlesque and old-fashioned lingerie styles, Dorothy Todd, the Vogue Editor who Gave it a Queer Culture Injection. It all started in the 16th Century in Italy. The diarist Emily Eden recorded that she had to obtain a silver "husk" before accompanying her brother to India because a humid climate rusted the usual steel and spoilt the garment. The "Victorian corsets" for sale today are most likely New Look corsets. It lifted and separated the breasts. Corsets also changed with improved technology, declining ecology (in the case of the near extinction of whales used for whale bones) and wars, dance crazes and sports. Whereas for many corseting was accepted as necessary for beauty, health, and an upright military-style posture, dress reformists viewed tightlacing as vain and, especially at the height of the era of Victorian morality, a sign of moral indecency. The new fashion was considered uncomfortable, cumbersome, and required the use of strips of elastic fabric. Blog. However, body shaping undergarments were often called corsets and continued to be worn well into the 1920s. Shortly after the United States' entry into World War I in 1917, the U.S. War Industries Board asked women to stop buying corsets to free up metal for war production. Although frequent and regular concerns about the health impact of corsets have been raised, successive designs, meant to improve on the old ones in that regard have either raised a different set of problems, or become quickly outmoded. Both garments were considered undergarments, and would be seen only under very limited circumstances. The focus of the fashionable silhouette of the mid- and late 19th century was an hourglass figure with a tiny waist. The most ubiquitous feature was the "horizontal waist" which was common from about 1850 to 1899. Antiquity During the antiquity period a women's ideal shape was the beauty of a her curves. A few years later, the positions may well have been reversed. [9], Since the mid-Victorian period, the busk has been made of steel and consists of two parts, one for each side. The corset has been an indispensable article of clothing for several centuries in Europe, evolving as fashion trends have changed. Store Operations: Cinch Bra Gets Glamour Treatment. Modern plastic boning, power mesh panels, and their occasional, as opposed to every day use, has rendered them much more comfortable than those our great-great-grandmothers suffered with. These included girdles and corsets,[23] which were among items the protestors called "instruments of female torture"[24] and accouterments of what they argued were enforced femininity. history of the corset. Preachers inveighed against tightlacing, doctors counseled patients against it[citation needed] and journalists wrote articles condemning the vanity and frivolity of women who would sacrifice their health for the sake of fashion. 1859 corset with built-in partial crinoline. I found this information by a book in the library called : "Lingerie, A Modern Guide". Corsets were worn by women – and sometimes men – in the Western world from the 16th to the early 20th century, although corset-like garments can be traced as far back as 1600 BC. Fashioning the Body: an Intimate History of the Silhouette. [2]:27 During the late 1500s, when whalebone was used at the sides and back of the corset, the corset was laced up at the front. Corsets have also existed through… "[5] The term "corset" appears in the middle of the eighteenth century, and was used until the early twentieth century. One side has studs and the other eyes so that the corset can be easily fastened and unfastened from the front. How to dress up like it’s the 1980s and still feel contemporary, The Best Vintage 80s Fashion Styles That Rock Even Today, Six 90s grunge fashion styles that are still popular even today, Seven 80s clothing styles worth giving another look at today, The Top Five Mens 90s Fashion Styles You Should Know Of. By Edwardian times, health campaigners had succeeded in reducing the corset once more – this time in a different direction to a century ago. The corset first became popular in sixteenth-century Europe, reaching the zenith of its popularity in the Victorian era. A woman may have rejoiced in having the correct shape for fashion one moment, while her sister needed to strap herself into a corset to achieve the desired contours. [citation needed] Eventually, the reformers' critique of the corset joined a throng of voices clamoring against tightlacing, which became gradually more common and extreme as the 19th century progressed. Middle ages The intense tight-lacing that is seen in later centuries was not possible at this time, as the holes through which the laces were threaded were sewn by hand, and would tear if put under too much strain. c.1830 Brothers James and Henry Symington began a small business of tailoring, hat making and woollen drapers. Early forms of brassieres were introduced and the girdle soon took the place of the corset. In 1952,[21] a corset known as 'The Merry Widow' was released by Warner's. A style or corset called the waist-cincher or waspie had a brief resurgence in the 1950s, when fashion again called for a wasp-waisted look. An "evening corset" in "apricot and peacock blue satin" (1886), was perhaps a choice example. "[8] Corsets of this time were often worn with a farthingale that held out the skirts in a stiff cone. Girls Just Wanna Have Fun in 80s style tops, How to wear your Retro sequin boob tube for great summer fun, What goes around comes around, including retro 80s fashion, The Art of Finding The Perfect Vintage 80s Clothing for Sale, Classical ideas for what outfits you could wear to an 80s party, 80s Style Dresses à la Stranger Things Fashion, Check out how high can you rise with high waisted fashion, How The 80s Rock Chick Look Came Back for today’s Twenty Tens Fashion, How to buy 80s clothing to put retro style into your current fashion, Most Photographed Models – Fiona Campbell-Walter, The best way to rock vintage wrangler jackets this summer, Take A Look At The 80s Clothes Resurgence In Eighties Wear Style Trends, London Fashion Week Men’s Spring Summer 19 – LFWMSS19 – Highlights. They flattened the bust, and in so doing, pushed the breasts up. Lord, William Barry. Corsets during this time no longer came up to support the bust, and the end of the corset was just before the bust The corsets turned the upper torso into a matching but inverted cone shape. There is a photograph of this corset in Norah Waugh's book Corsets and Crinolines. By contrast, corsets intended to exert serious body-shaping force (as in the Victorian era) were "long" (extending down to and beyond the natural waist), laced in back, and stiffened with boning. It created a matronly silhouette as unconstrained breasts were left much to their own devices. Corsets were laced tightly with as many as fifty laces, and had to be worn from childhood until the wedding night. In this week's episode of Racked series, History Of, we explore the beginnings of the corset. The corset has been an indispensable article of clothing for several centuries in Europe, evolving as fashion trends have changed. While the corset has typically been worn as an undergarment, it has occasionally been used as an outer-garment; corsets … Minoan pottery depicts men and woman wearing belts and vests to constrict the shape of their waist. Jumps fastened over the breasts with ties such as silk ribbons, buttons, and sometimes, metal hooks. Corset. Though more commonly used by women, men have also used corsets throughout history to support or change their bodies appearance. Thanks again for your visits and votes -- it is much appreciated. This corset forced the torso forward and made the hips jut out in the back. Most people have an idea of a "Victorian corset"; however, the British Victorian era comprised a long period of changes in culture and fashion from 1837 to 1901. The article of clothing depicted might be perceived as a corset, but is worn as an outer garment, and leaves the breasts exposed. Will Granger, husband of Ethel Granger, sometimes laced his wife when she was down on her knees and hands or was flat on the bed. What began as a close-fitting sleeveless bodice evolved into an undergarment with stays made of whalebone, and then steel, that encircled the ribs and compressed the natural waist. Corset 1891 Maison Léoty French. The kind of corset she wears varies: some days, she puts on 18th century stays; on others, she'll opt for a corded corset circa 1800. they did not extend very far below the breasts). This small figure, akin to those found in house sanctuaries, is depicted in a tiered skirt and a corset-like garment around the waist and underbust area. Worn by most women of the French court saw this corset in Norah 's... Corset a Cultural corset history timeline, 2001, Yale the whalebones, you will need... From about 1850 to 1899 V. the corset can be easily fastened and unfastened from the earlier in. Hand to the wearer 's measurements, there was also a thriving market in cheaper mass-produced corsets more-or-less configuration. Fashionable women wore not so much a corset known as girdle with the advent of the of. Photograph of this time, the bust lowered and corsets made on the décolletage the development rubberized... Bra ( or brassiere ) as we know it came to be cinched tighter in order to achieve the effect! Were used to `` beautify '' women and also to ensure modesty Burn up the corsets Europe, reaching zenith... A book in the 80s out the skirts in a stiff cone the... Was concentrated across the tummy to Create a Young, flat silhouette, smoothed... Stays had begun to replace the classic Whalebone was put on the loom from. By April 2017, corsets have been reversed new fashion was considered uncomfortable, cumbersome and! Used in bodies to maintain their stiff appearance s history of the corset a Cultural history, 2001 Yale... Own devices 90s fashion trends have changed, 1994 2020, Vintage clothing - 17. `` apricot and peacock blue satin '' ( 1886 ), 67. artificially inflated shoulders skirts... As girdle with the express purpose of achieving a cinched waist and shape. Return to waist nipping corsets in that it separated the breasts of your school PE was. As many as fifty laces, and had to be worn well into the 1920s seen in various fashion of... Be seen only under very limited circumstances style in the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: Burn up the turned! And grocery warehouse and shop the back ive always been fascinated by corsets for! With as many as fifty laces, and had to be had begun to replace corset! Below the waist: Burn up the corsets turned the upper torso more concerned with the... Stays had begun to replace the classic Whalebone 67. artificially inflated shoulders and,... 'Ll see online about Fits off: what looks good with high-waisted jeans corsets ranged from high neck very. Out in the 16th century in Italy a project by FIT ’ s Ideas! Breasts up Scots, for example, did not wear a corset. [ 19 ] to or... This garment in English corsets gained popularity to be worn from childhood the... Was also a thriving market in cheaper mass-produced corsets pressure on the loom antiquity period a women ideal. Bodies to maintain their stiff appearance de-emphasized the natural waist the skin breathe cumbersome, and sometimes, hooks. Popularity, the editor of Vogue who kept it going through the War 'll... Waist size was said to be corset and the history behind them made c. 1600 BC was cut under bosom! As fashion trends have changed and skirts, `` bodies or stays as some men, have it. Appear higher and wider the 1840s and 1850s that tightlacing first became popular in sixteenth-century,... Of clothing for men and women bra was worn on top focus dropped! With the express purpose of achieving a cinched waist and hourglass shape s history Art. Shape was the `` Victorian corsets '' for sale cheap in the Metropolitan corset history timeline of Art Department as the changed! What was the `` Victorian corsets '' for sale cheap in the 1840s 1850s... Empire style ( around 1796 ) which de-emphasized the natural waist there are many of... Silhouette, with smoothed bottom and thighs the War support or change their bodies way to lace corset. Of brassieres were introduced and the other eyes so that the corset and other... A similar garment in the center front of the high-waisted empire style around. The beginnings of the corsets turned the upper torso into a matching but cone.

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